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We present a family of replay attacks against sharded distributed ledgers,
that target cross-shard consensus protocols, such as the recently proposed
Chainspace and Omniledger. They allow an attacker, with network access only, to
double-spend or lock resources with minimal efforts. The attacker can act
independently without colluding with any nodes, and succeed even if all nodes
are honest; most of the attacks can also exhibit themselves as faults under
periods of asynchrony. These attacks are effective against both shard-led and
client-led cross-shard consensus approaches. Finally, we present Byzcuit - a
new cross-shard consensus protocol that is immune to those attacks. We
implement a prototype of Byzcuit and evaluate it on a real cloud-based testbed,
showing that our defenses impact performance minimally, and overall performance
surpasses previous works.

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